While the agricultural sector is the most vulnerable to climate change, it is also a major cause, directly accounting for approximately 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions, or as much as 30% when considering land-use change, including deforestation caused by agricultural expansion. However, agriculture also has the potential to be an important part of the solution by reducing and/or removing a significant amount of global CO2 emissions. Reducing agricultural emissions is critical to achieving global climate goals. This article discusses food security and climate smart agriculture in South Africa.